Scientific Publications

Our scientific publications in reverse chronological order.

  1. D. Paltin, M. Tyler, and Y. Danilov, “Cognitive enhancement exciting discovery using trans-lingual neuro-stimulation,” J. Neurol. Neurorehabil. Res., vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 39-45, 2017. (open access)
  2. Kaczmarek, KA, Tyler, ME, Okpara, UO, and Haase, SJ, “Interaction of perceived frequency and intensity in fingertip electrotactile stimulation: Dissimilarity ratings and multidimensional scaling,” IEEE Trans. Neural Sys. Rehab. Eng., 2017, doi: 10.1109/TNSRE.2017.2702628, NIHMSID 870833. 
  3. Kaczmarek, KA, “The portable neuromodulation stimulator (PoNS) for neurorehabilitation,” Scientia Iranica D, vol. 24 no. 7, pp 3171-3180, 2017. doi: 10.24200/sci.2017.4489
  4. Tyler, ME, Kaczmarek, KA, Rust KL, Subbotin AM, Skinner, KL, Danilov, YP. (2014) Non-invasive neuromodulation to improve gait in chronic multiple sclerosis: a randomized double blind controlled pilot trial. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, 11:79.
  5. Danilov, Y. P. and V. S. Kublanov (2014). "Emerging noninvasive neurostimulation technologies: CN-NINM and SYMPATOCORECTION." J. Behav. Brain. Sci. 4: 105-113.
  6. Wildenberg, J. C., M. E. Tyler, Y. P. Danilov, K. A. Kaczmarek and M. E. Meyerand (2013). "Altered connectivity of the balance processing network after electrical tongue stimulation in balance-impaired individuals." Brain Connectivity 3(1): 87-97.
  7. Wildenberg, J. C., M. E. Tyler, Y. P. Danilov, K. A. Kaczmarek and M. E. Meyerand (2011). "Electrical tongue stimulation normalizes activity within the motion-sensitive brain network in balance-impaired subjects as revealed by group independent component analysis." Brain Connectivity 1(3): 255-265. doi:10.1089/brain.2011.0029
  8. Wildenberg, J. C., M. E. Tyler, Y. P. Danilov, K. A. Kaczmarek and M. E. Meyerand (2011). "High-resolution fMRI detects neuromodulation of individual brainstem nuclei by electrical tongue stimulation in balance-impaired individuals." Neuroimage 56: 2129-2137. doi:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.03.074
  9. Kaczmarek, K.A. (2011). The tongue display unit for electrotactile spatiotemporal pattern presentation. Scientia Iranica D. 18, 1476-1485.doi:10.1016/j.scient.2011.08.020
  10. J. C. Wildenberg, M. E. Tyler, Y. P. Danilov, K. A. Kaczmarek, and M. E. Meyerand (2010), "Sustained cortical and subcortical neuromodulation induced by electrical tongue stimulation," Brain Imaging Behav. 4, pp. 199-211.PMID2061420 | SpringerLink | PDF Reproduced with permission of Springer
  11. Barros, C.G., Bittar, R.S., and Danilov, Y.P. (2010). Effects of electrotactile vestibular substitution on rehabilitation of patients with bilateral vestibular loss. Neuroscience Letters, 476, pp. 123-126.
  12. C. L. Lozano, K. A. Kaczmarek and M. Santello (2009). "Electrotactile stimulation on the tongue: Intensity perception, discrimination and cross-modality estimation," Somatosens. Mot. Res. 26(2), pp. 50-63. PMC2839388, NIHMS176205.
  13. Vuillerme, N., P. Nicolas, O. Chenu, J. Demongeot, Y. Payan and Y. Danilov (2008). "Sensory supplementation system based on electrotactile tongue biofeedback of head position for balance control." Neurosci. Letters 431(3): 206-210.
  14. Schaning, M.A. and Kaczmarek, K.A. (2008). A high-voltage bipolar voltage-to-current converter (HVB-VIC) for use in electrotactile stimulation. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng. 55, pp. 2433-2443. PMC2586184
  15. Danilov, Y.P., Tyler, M.E., Skinner, K.L., Hogle, R.A., Bach-y-Rita, P. (2007). Efficacy of electrotactile vestibular substitution in patients with peripheral and central vestibular loss. J. Vestib. Research, Vol. 17, No. 2-3, pp 119-130.
  16. Kaczmarek, K.A., Nammi, K.K., Agarwal, A.K., Tyler, M.E., Haase, S.J., Beebe, D.J. (2006). Polarity effect in electro-vibration for tactile display. IEEE J. Transact. BME, 53:10, pp. 2047-54.
  17. Kim, D., Tyler, M.E., Beebe, D.J. (2005). Development of a Tongue-Operated Switch Array as an Alternative Input Device. Internat. Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 18(1), 19-38. Lawrence Erlbaum Assoc.
  18. Haase, S. J. and Kaczmarek, K. A. (2005), Electrotactile perception of scatterplots on the fingertips and abdomen. Med. Biol. Eng. Comput. 43, 283-289.
  19. Danilov, Y. & Tyler, M. (2005). BrainPort: an alternative input to the brain. Journal of Integrated Neuroscience. 4, 4, pp.1-14.
  20. Bach-y-Rita, P., Danilov Y.P., Tyler M.E., Grimm, R.J. (2005). Late Human Brain Plasticity: Vestibular Substitution with a Tongue BrainPort Human-Machine Interface. J Intellectica, 40, pp. 115-122.
  21. Bach-y-Rita, P. (2004). Is It Possible to Restore Function With Two Percent Surviving Neural Tissue? J. Integrative Neurosci. 3(1): 3-6.
  22. Tyler, M., Danilov Y.P., Bach-y-Rita, P. (2003). Closing an open-loop control system: vestibular substitution through the tongue. J. Integr. Neurosci. 2:2 pp 159-164.
  23. Kaczmarek, K. A. and Haase, S. J. (2003). Pattern identification and perceived stimulus quality as a function of stimulation waveform on a fingertip-scanned electrotactile display. IEEE Trans. Neural Sys. Rehab. Eng. 11, 9-16.
  24. Bach-y-Rita, P., Tyler, M.E., & Kaczmarek, K.A., (2003). Seeing with the Brain. International Journal on Human-Computer Interaction: Special Edition on Mediated Reality. 15:2, pp. 285-296
  25. Bach-y-Rita, P., & Kercel, S. W. (2003). Sensory Substitution and the Human-Machine Interface. TICS, 7, 541-546.
  26. Kaczmarek, K.A., Tyler, M.E., Brisben, A.J. and Johnson, K.O. (2000). Afferent neural response to electrotactile stimuli: Preliminary results.  IEEE Trans. on Rehab. Engr. 8:2, pp 268-270.
  27. Kaczmarek, K.A. (2000).  Electrotactile adaptation on the abdomen: Preliminary results. IEEE Trans. Rehab. Eng., vol.8, pp. 499-505.
  28. Bach-y-Rita, P., Kaczmarek, K.A., Tyler, M.E., Garcia-Lara, J. (1998).  Form Perception with a 49-Point Electrotactile Stimulus Array on the Tongue.  J. of Rehab. Research & Develop., Oct., 35:4:427-430.
  29. Barfield, W., Hendrix, C., Bjorneseth, O., Kaczmarek, K.A. and Lotens, W. (1996). Comparison of human sensory capabilities with technical specifications of virtual environment equipment. Presence, vol. 4, pp. 329-356.
  30. Bach-y-Rita, P. (1996). Nonsynaptic diffusion neurotransmission and brain plasticity. The Neuroscientist 5, 1-3.
  31. Bach-y-Rita, P. (1994). The brain beyond the synapse: A review. NeuroReport, 5,1553-1557.
  32. Bach-y-Rita, P. (1993). Nonsynaptic diffusion neurotransmission (NDN) in the brain. Neurochem. Int. 23:297-318.
  33. Bach-y-Rita, P. (1993). Neurotransmission in the brain by diffusion through the extracellular fluid. NeuroReport 4:343-350.
  34. Kaczmarek, K.A., Webster, J.G. and Radwin, R.G. (1992). Maximal dynamic range electrotactile stimulation waveforms. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 39, pp. 701-715.
  35. Kaczmarek, K.A., Webster, J.G., Bach-y-Rita, P. and Tompkins, W.J. (1991). Electrotactile and vibrotactile displays for sensory substitution systems. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 38, pp. 1-16.
  36. Kaczmarek, K.A., Kramer, K.M., Webster, J.G. and Radwin, R.G.(1991). A 16-channel 8-parameter waveform electrotactile stimulation system. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. 38, pp. 933-943.
  37. Bach-y-Rita, P. (1990). Three-dimensional spatial graphics for blind computer users. In Access to Visual Computer Information by Blind Persons, EEC Community Concerted Action on Technology and Blindness, Technical University of Berlin; K. Fellbaum (ed.), pp.81-85.
  38. Bach-y-Rita, P. (1990). Receptor plasticity and volume transmission in the brain: emerging concepts with relevance to neurologic rehabilitation. J. Neurol. Rehab. 4:121-128.
  39. Epstein, W., Hughes, B., Schneider, S.L. and Bach-y-Rita, P. (1989). Perceptual learning of spatiotemporal events: evidence from an unfamiliar modality. J. Exper. Psychol., Human Percept. & Performance 15:28-44.
  40. Miletic, G., Hughes, B. and Bach-y-Rita, P. (1988). Vibrotactile stimulation: an educational program for spatial concept development. J. Vis. Impair. and Blindness, pp.366-370, Nov.
  41. Frisken-Gibson, S., Bach-y-Rita, P. Tompkins, W.J. and Webster, J.G. (1987). A 64-solenoid, four-level fingertip search display for the blind.  IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering, 34:963-965.
  42. Bach-y-Rita, P. (1987). Brain plasticity as a basis of sensory substitution. J. Neuro. Rehab. 2:67-71.
  43. Epstein, W., Hughes, B., Schneider, S. and Bach-y-Rita, P. (1986). Is there anything out there?: A study of distal attribution in response to vibrotactile stimulation. Perception 15:275-284.
  44. Kaczmarek, K., Bach-y-Rita, P., Tompkins, W. and Webster, J. (1985). A tactile vision-substitution system for the blind: Computer-controlled partial image sequencing. IEEE Trans. Biomed. Eng., vol. BME-32, pp. 602-608.
  45. Bach-y-Rita, P. (1983). Tactile vision substitution: past and future.  Intern.  J. Neuroscience 19:29-36.
  46. Bach-y-Rita, P. (1981). Central nervous system lesions: Sprouting and unmasking in rehabilitation.  Arch.  PM&R, 62:413-417.
  47. Bach-Y-Rita, P. (1981). Brain plasticity as a basis of the development of rehabilitation procedures for hemiplegia.  Scand.  J. Rehab.  Med. 13:73-83.
  48. Collins, C.C. and Bach-y-Rita, P. (1973). Transmission of pictorial information through the skin. Advan. Biol. Med. Phys.14:285-315.
  49. White, B.W., Saunders, F.A., Scadden, L., Bach-y-Rita, P., and Collins, C.C. (1970).  Seeing with the skin. Perception and Psychophysics 7:23-27.
  50. Bach-y-Rita, P., Collins, C.C., Saunders, F., White, B. and Scadden, L. (1969). Vision substitution by tactile image projection. Nature 221:963-964.

Project Directors

Our team is led by three project directors, Kurt Kaczmarek, Mitchell Tyler and Yuri Danilov, who have a combined total of 65 years of experience in neuroscience, biomedical science, and engineering. 

Our Research

Founded in 1992, the Tactile Com­mu­nication & Neurorehabilitation Laboratory (TCNL) is located at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

We are a research center that uses the experience of many different areas of science to study the theory and application of applied neuro­plasticity, the brain’s ability to re­or­ganize in response to new informa­tion, needs, and pathways.

Our research is aimed at developing solutions for sensory and motor disorder rehabilitation.

Paul's Publications


  • Bach-y-Rita, P. (1995) Nonsynaptic Diffusion Neurotransmission and Late Brain Reorganization Demos, New York.
  • Bach-y-Rita, P. (1989) (ed.). Traumatic Brain Iniury. Demos Publications, New York, pp. 331.
  • Bach-y-Rita, P. (1979) Brain Mechanisms in Sensory Substitution. Academic Press, New York, 1972. Spanish Edition: Mecanismos Cerebrales de la Sustitucion Sensorial. Editorial Trillas, Mex.  D.F., 1979, pp. 214.

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  • Bach-y-Rita, P. El sistema internuncial oculomotor. Acta Neurol. Latinoamer. 2:65 71, 1956.
  • Olds, J., K.F. Killam-and P. Bach-y-Rita. Self-stimulation of the brain used as a screening method for tranquilizing drugs. Science 124:265-266, 1956.
  • Eliasson, S.G., J.E. Hyde and P. Bach-y-Rita. Effects of intravenous thiopental on spontaneous and evoked eye movements in cats. Amer. J. Physiol.194:203-208,1957.

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Conference Papers 

  • Bach-Y-Rita, P. "Neurology Beyond the Clinic:" The Divine Banquet of the Brain: and Other Essays, M. Critchley. Contemp. Psych. 26:124-125, 1981. LIMITED DISTRIBUTION
  • Cogan, A., J. Madey, W. Kaufman, G. Holmlund and P. Bach-Y-Rita. Pong Game as a Rehabilitation Device. Proceedings of Fourth Annual Conf. on Systems & Devices for the Disabled, Seattle, WA.; June 1-3, 1977.
  • Bach-y-Rita, P. (coauthor). Syllabus Chapter, Rehabilitation of Brain Disorders, American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 1985.

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