Collaborative Publications

We are excited to share research that has been done outside of our lab using our technology.

  1. Song, J, Young, B, Walton, L, Nigogosyan, Z, Walton, L, Nair, V, Grogan, S, Tyler, M, Farrar-Edwards, D, Caldera, K, Sattin, J, Williams, J, Prabhakaran, V. (2015). "DTI measures track and predict motor function outcomes in stroke rehabilitation utilizing BCI technology." Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 9:195; doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2015.00195
  2. Song, J, Nair, V, Young, B, Walton, L, Nigogosyan, Z, Remsik, A, Tyler, M, Farrar-Edwards, D, Caldera, K, Sattin, J, Williams, J, Prabhakaran, V. (2015). "Characterizing relationships of DTI, fMRI, and motor recovery in stroke rehabilitation utilizing brain-computer interface technology. Frontiers in Neuroengr;
  3. Young, BM, Nigogosyan, Z, Walton, Remsik, A, Walton, L, Song, J, Nair, VA, Grogan, SW, Tyler, ME, Edwards, DF, Caldera, K, Sattin, J, Williams, J, Prabhakaran, V (2014). "Changes in functional connectivity correlate with behavioral gains in stroke patients after therapy using a brain-computer interface device." Frontiers Neuroengr;
  4. Young, BM, Nigogosyan, Z, Walton, LM, Song, J , Nair, VA, Grogan, SW, Tyler, ME, Edwards, DF, Caldera, K, Sattin, J, Williams, J, Prabhakaran, VK (2014). "Changes in Functional Brain Organization and Behavioral Correlations after Rehabilitative Therapy Using a Brain-computer Interface." PloS One, [EMID:8f2bf5d4594accc6]
  5. Chisholm AE, Malik RN, Blouin JS, Borisoff J, Forwell S, Lam T (2014). "Feasibility of sensory tongue stimulation combined with task-specific therapy in people with spinal cord injury: a case study." J. NeuroEng. and Rehab. 11(96), doi: 10.1186/1743-0003-11-96. Epub 2014 June 2.
  6. Wilson, J. A., L. M. Walton and J. Williams (2012). "Lingual electrotactile stimulation as an alternative sensory feedback pathway for brain-computer interface applications." J. Neural Eng. 9(4), doi: 10.1088/1741-2560/9/4/045007. Epub 2012 Jul 25.
  7. Coisne S (2010) La langue a la place des yeux (French). In: Les Dossiers de la Recherche, vol. 40, pp 70-73.
  8. Matteau I, Kupers R, Ricciardi E, Pietrini P, Ptito M (2010) Beyond visual, aural and haptic movement perception: hMT+ is activated by electrotactile motion stimulation of the tongue in sighted and in congenitally blind individuals. Brain Res Bull 82(5-6): 264-270.
  9. Uneri A, Polat S (2009) Vestibular rehabilitation with electrotactile vestibular substitution: early effects. Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 266:1199-1203.
  10. Wood SJ, Black FO, MacDougall HG, Moore ST (2009) Electrotactile feedback of sway position improves postrual performance during galvanic vestibular stimulation. Basic And Clinical Aspects of Vertigo and Dizziness 1164:492-498.
  11. Vuillerme N, Pinsault N, Chenu O, Fleury A, Payan Y, Demongeot J (2008) Postural destabilization induced by trunk extensor muscles fatigue is suppressed by use of a plantar pressure-based electro-tactile biofeedback. Europ J Appl Physiol 104:119-125.
  12. Vuillerme N, Cuisinier R (2008) Head position-based electrotactile tongue biofeedback affects postural responses to Achilles tendon vibration in humans. Exp Brain Res 186:503-508.
  13. Vuillerme N, Nicolas P, Chenu O, Demongeot J, Payan Y, Danilov Y (2008) Sensory supplementation system based on electrotactile tongue biofeedback of head position for balance control. Neurosci Letters 431:206-210.
  14. Chebat DR, Rainville C, Kupers R, Ptito M (2007) Tactile-'visual' acuity of the tongue in early blind individuals. Neuroreport 18:1901-1904.
  15. Robineau F, Boy F, Orliaguet J-P, Demongeot J, Payan Y (2007) Guiding the surgical gesture using an electro-tactile stimulus array on the tongue: A feasibility study. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng 54:711-717.
  16. Vuillerme N, Chenu O, Demongeot J, Payan Y (2007) Controlling posture using a plantar pressure-based, tongue-placed tactile biofeedback system. Experimental Brain Research 179:409-414.
  17. Vuillerme N, Chenu O, Pinsault N, Boisgontier M, Demongeot J, Payan Y (2007) Inter-individual variability in sensory weighting of a plantar pressure-based, tongue-placed tactile biofeedback for controlling posture. Neurosci Lett 421:173-177.
  18. Vuillerme N, Boisgontier M, Chenu O, Demongeot J, Payan Y (2007) Tongue-placed tactile biofeedback suppresses the deleterious effects of muscle fatigue on joint position sense at the ankle. Exp Brain Res 183:235-240.
  19. Vuillerme N, Chenu O, Demongeot J, Payan Y (2006) Improving human ankle joint position sense using an artificial tongue-placed tactile biofeedback. Neurosci Lett 405:19-23.
  20. Ptito M, Moesgaard S, Gjedde A, Kupers R (2005) Cross-modal plasticity revealed by electrotactile stimulation of the tongue in the congenitally blind. Brain 128:606-614.
  21. Segond H, Weiss D, Sampaio E (2005) Human spatial navigation in a visuo-tactile sensory substitution system. Peception 34:1231-1249.
  22. Kupers R, Ptito M (2004) "Seeing" through the tongue: cross-modal plasticity in the congenitally blind. International Congress Series 1270:79-84.
  23. Sampaio E, Maris S, Bach-y-Rita P (2001) Brain plasticity: "visual" acuity of blind persons via the tongue. Brain Res 908:204-207.


  1. Kukurin GW (2014) Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation in mTBI: A Case Series. International Brain Injury Association's Tenth World Congress on Brain Injury, San Francisco, CA, March 19-22. (poster)
  2. Liegl KP, Rust KL, Smith RO (2013) Introduction to the portable neuromuscular stimulator (PoNS™) device and effects on balance and gait for individuals with traumatic brain injuries. Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America Annual Conference, Seattle, WA, June 20-24. (poster)
  3. Kukurin GW (2013) A Case of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) with Persistent Post-Concussion Symptoms: Response toCranial Nerve Non-Invasive Neural Modulation (CN-NINM). 6th Pannonium Symposium on Central Nervous System Injury, Pecs, Hungary, April 5-6. (poster)
  4. Lozano C, Santello M (2007) Effects of electrotactile stimulation on the tongue on voluntary force production. In: Society for Neuroscience.
  5. Lozano C (2006) Psychophysical measures for tongue's electrotactile stimulation: dynamic ranges, intensity differentiation, and estimation. In: Soc Neurosci Annu Mtg  Atlanta, GA.

Project Directors

Our team is led by three project directors, Kurt Kaczmarek, Mitchell Tyler and Yuri Danilov, who have a combined total of 65 years of experience in neuroscience, biomedical science, and engineering. 

Our Research

Founded in 1992, the Tactile Com­mu­nication & Neurorehabilitation Laboratory (TCNL) is located at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.

We are a research center that uses the experience of many different areas of science to study the theory and application of applied neuro­plasticity, the brain’s ability to re­or­ganize in response to new informa­tion, needs, and pathways.

Our research is aimed at developing solutions for sensory and motor disorder rehabilitation.

Paul's Publications


  • Bach-y-Rita, P. (1995) Nonsynaptic Diffusion Neurotransmission and Late Brain Reorganization Demos, New York.
  • Bach-y-Rita, P. (1989) (ed.). Traumatic Brain Iniury. Demos Publications, New York, pp. 331.
  • Bach-y-Rita, P. (1979) Brain Mechanisms in Sensory Substitution. Academic Press, New York, 1972. Spanish Edition: Mecanismos Cerebrales de la Sustitucion Sensorial. Editorial Trillas, Mex.  D.F., 1979, pp. 214.

View All Paul's Books 


  • Bach-y-Rita, P. El sistema internuncial oculomotor. Acta Neurol. Latinoamer. 2:65 71, 1956.
  • Olds, J., K.F. Killam-and P. Bach-y-Rita. Self-stimulation of the brain used as a screening method for tranquilizing drugs. Science 124:265-266, 1956.
  • Eliasson, S.G., J.E. Hyde and P. Bach-y-Rita. Effects of intravenous thiopental on spontaneous and evoked eye movements in cats. Amer. J. Physiol.194:203-208,1957.

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Conference Papers 

  • Bach-Y-Rita, P. "Neurology Beyond the Clinic:" The Divine Banquet of the Brain: and Other Essays, M. Critchley. Contemp. Psych. 26:124-125, 1981. LIMITED DISTRIBUTION
  • Cogan, A., J. Madey, W. Kaufman, G. Holmlund and P. Bach-Y-Rita. Pong Game as a Rehabilitation Device. Proceedings of Fourth Annual Conf. on Systems & Devices for the Disabled, Seattle, WA.; June 1-3, 1977.
  • Bach-y-Rita, P. (coauthor). Syllabus Chapter, Rehabilitation of Brain Disorders, American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 1985.

View All Paul's Papers